TRIATHLON

TRAINING 3 DISCIPLINES TAKES TIME!

Age and training volume are both factors influencing endurance performance. Age-group athletes, amateurs combining training with other daily commitments, may have difficulty finding free time for optimal physical preparation.

ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE TENDS TO DECLINE WITH AGEING AND THE LONGEST DISTANCES

Athletes, after ∼40 years of age for males and ∼30 years of age for females, may encounter an age-related decline in endurance performance. This decline seems more pronounced in endurance and ultra-endurance races, such as 70.3 and 140.6 Ironman triathlons, due to their high metabolic demands compared to shorter distances (i.e., Olympic and Sprint). The decline appears as well discipline-specific: earlier declines have been recorded in swimming and running compared to cycling.

Athletes, after ∼40 years of age for males and ∼30 years of age for females, may encounter an age-related decline in endurance performance. This decline seems more pronounced in endurance and ultra-endurance races, such as 70.3 and 140.6 Ironman triathlons, due to their high metabolic demands compared to shorter distances (i.e., Olympic and Sprint). The decline appears as well discipline-specific: earlier declines have been recorded in swimming and running compared to cycling.

NUTRITION MAY COUNTERACT SOME DETRIMENTAL EFFECT OF AGEING ON SPORTS PERFORMANCE

Recent evidence suggests that training in a carbohydrate-restricted state, or “training low”, can enhance the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and substrate metabolism, both factors related to the decline of endurance performance with ageing. This nutritional strategy, if carefully designed, may be complementary to age-group athletes’ training routines, possibly maximizing the efficacy of their training sessions while perhaps attenuating some of the detrimental effects of ageing at the peripheral muscle level.

LONG DISTANCE TRIATHLON DI (70.3 L – 140.6 XL)

Ironman races are conducted at moderate to high intensity, ~80% of maximum heart rate (Laursen et al., 2011).

The 70.3 events tend to last in the range from 4 to 7 hours, and the 140.6 events from 8 to 17 hours (Laursen et al., 2011), with an energy expenditure of approximately 4,500 kcal for half Ironman triathlons (Gillum et al., 2006) and 8,500 to 11,500 kcal for full Ironman races (Kimber et al., 2002).

Because the depletion of glycogen in working muscles seems to cause fatigue (Saltin et al., 1971), it is possible to assume that both half and full Ironman races are events for which glycogen depletion may represent a limiting factor.

In such races, the capacity to oxidise the highest rates of fat as an energy substrate may indeed be of paramount importance (O’Toole et al., 1989) and should be targeted by complementary training and nutritional strategies. Indeed, maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) has been shown to correlate with overall Ironman performance (Frandsen et al., 2017).

The aerobic threshold (Lucia et al., 1999), reflects an athlete’s submaximal aerobic capacity and is among the best predictors of long-distance performance.

Ironman races are conducted at moderate to high intensity, ~80% of maximum heart rate (Laursen et al., 2011).

The 70.3 events tend to last in the range from 4 to 7 hours, and the 140.6 events from 8 to 17 hours (Laursen et al., 2011), with an energy expenditure of approximately 4,500 kcal for half Ironman triathlons (Gillum et al., 2006) and 8,500 to 11,500 kcal for full Ironman races (Kimber et al., 2002).

Because the depletion of glycogen in working muscles seems to cause fatigue (Saltin et al., 1971), it is possible to assume that both half and full Ironman races are events for which glycogen depletion may represent a limiting factor.

In such races, the capacity to oxidise the highest rates of fat as an energy substrate may indeed be of paramount importance (O’Toole et al., 1989) and should be targeted by complementary training and nutritional strategies. Indeed, maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) has been shown to correlate with overall Ironman performance (Frandsen et al., 2017).

The aerobic threshold (Lucia et al., 1999), reflects an athlete’s submaximal aerobic capacity and is among the best predictors of long-distance performance.

PERFORMANCE MODEL

1.9(3.8)K

90 (180)K

21 (42)K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


1.9(3.8)K


90 (180)K


21 (42)K

BODY COMPOSITION

In long-distance swimming, body fat mass does not appear to influence performance. Concerning cycling, total weight (athlete and equipment) has a negligible impact if cycling on flat ground at a constant speed, where aerodynamics have greater importance. However, if cycling uphill, relative power output (W/kg) is relevant because it is correlated with the vertical ascent velocity (VAM), expressed in meters of gain per hour (m.h1; Gordon et al., 2004)

The inverse relationship between body fat mass and long-distance running performance has been well-documented in several studies (Cureton et al., 1978; Barandun et al., 2012). This evidence suggests that body fat mass has an impact on Ironman finishing time. Published sources indicate that the optimal percentages may range between 4 and 10% for males and between 13 and 18% for female long-distance triathletes (O’Toole et al., 1989).

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexes T2 (aerobic threshold); W/kg @T2
Physical determinantsBody FAT% 4%-10% (man);
13%-18% (female)
Physiological determinantsT2 (aerobic threshold),
max fat oxidation rate, endurance
Energy requirements (race)4.000-11.500Kcal
Positive gain0 – 2300+m
Race lengthFrom 4 to 7 hours (70.3)
from 8 to 17 hours (140.6)

In long-distance swimming, body fat mass does not appear to influence performance. Concerning cycling, total weight (athlete and equipment) has a negligible impact if cycling on flat ground at a constant speed, where aerodynamics have greater importance. However, if cycling uphill, relative power output (W/kg) is relevant because it is correlated with the vertical ascent velocity (VAM), expressed in meters of gain per hour (m.h1; Gordon et al., 2004)

The inverse relationship between body fat mass and long-distance running performance has been well-documented in several studies (Cureton et al., 1978; Barandun et al., 2012). This evidence suggests that body fat mass has an impact on Ironman finishing time. Published sources indicate that the optimal percentages may range between 4 and 10% for males and between 13 and 18% for female long-distance triathletes (O’Toole et al., 1989).

TRIATHLON OLYMPIC

In this discipline, physical demand correlates to the nature of the race roads, together with race dynamics and tactics.

In swimming, usually, different speeds are recorded between the first 200m and the rest of the swim leg. In Elite men, for example, the first 200m are usually swam at ∼ 1’10”-1’12”/100m, with a suddenly slower pace of ∼ 1’19”-1’20”/100m (Vlecka et al., 2007) In Elite Women, the swim start may be swam at ∼ 1’20”-1’23”/100m to suddenly settle at ∼ 1’25”/1’28”/100m

The cycling leg has different components similar to criterium races (Etxebarria et al., 2013): average intensity close to ∼ 60-65% del Vo2max with peaks > 130% VO2max and long intervals ∼ 80-90% VO2max. (Bernard et al., 2009).

In this discipline, physical demand correlates to the nature of the race roads, together with race dynamics and tactics.

In swimming, usually, different speeds are recorded between the first 200m and the rest of the swim leg. In Elite men, for example, the first 200m are usually swam at ∼ 1’10”-1’12”/100m, with a suddenly slower pace of ∼ 1’19”-1’20”/100m (Vlecka et al., 2007) In Elite Women, the swim start may be swam at ∼ 1’20”-1’23”/100m to suddenly settle at ∼ 1’25”/1’28”/100m

The cycling leg has different components similar to criterium races (Etxebarria et al., 2013): average intensity close to ∼ 60-65% del Vo2max with peaks > 130% VO2max and long intervals ∼ 80-90% VO2max. (Bernard et al., 2009).

PERFORMANCE MODEL

1.5K

≃45K

10K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


1.5K


≃45K


10K

BODY COMPOSITION

In the running leg, performance may vary substantially in relation to the course track (flat or hilly) In Elite races, male running pace may vary from ∼ 3’30” (min:sec/km) to 3’00” (min:sec/km). In women from ∼ 4’00” (min:sec/km) a 3’30” (min:sec/km) (Vlecka et al., 2007).

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexesT2 (aerobic threshold), T4 (anaerobic threshold),
VO2max; W/kg@T4; W/kg@VO2max
Physical determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Physiological determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Energy requirements (race)≃2.000-2.500Kcal
Positive gainVariable
Race length≃ 110 min (men)
/ 123 min (women)

In the running leg, performance may vary substantially in relation to the course track (flat or hilly) In Elite races, male running pace may vary from ∼ 3’30” (min:sec/km) to 3’00” (min:sec/km). In women from ∼ 4’00” (min:sec/km) a 3’30” (min:sec/km) (Vlecka et al., 2007).

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

TRIATHLON SPRINT

triathlon Sprint e Super-Sprint are endurance multi-disciplines events of short duration. In these competitions, individual skills, which influence transition time, have the biggest influence on race results, if compared with longer triathlon (Joel A. Walsh., 2019) These races are characterized from repeated high intensity pulls and accelerations. High power outputs and high average speed are frequent all along the race, together with race tactics. The average duration of these races (for the elite) is of ∼ 50 min (men) and 55 min (women). As well in the elite, the single legs may be performed as follow: swim (1’12”/100m (men and women); Cycling ∼ 46km/h (men) e ∼ 41.5km/h (women); running (2’53”/Km men e 3’14”/Km women)

triathlon Sprint e Super-Sprint are endurance multi-disciplines events of short duration. In these competitions, individual skills, which influence transition time, have the biggest influence on race results, if compared with longer triathlon (Joel A. Walsh., 2019) These races are characterized from repeated high intensity pulls and accelerations. High power outputs and high average speed are frequent all along the race, together with race tactics. The average duration of these races (for the elite) is of ∼ 50 min (men) and 55 min (women). As well in the elite, the single legs may be performed as follow: swim (1’12”/100m (men and women); Cycling ∼ 46km/h (men) e ∼ 41.5km/h (women); running (2’53”/Km men e 3’14”/Km women)

PERFORMANCE MODEL

400 m

≃10K

2.5K

700 K

≃20K

5 K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


400 m


≃10K


2.5K


700 K


≃20K


5 K

BODY COMPOSITION

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexesT2 (aerobic threshold), T4 (anaerobic threshold),
VO2max; W/kg@T4; W/kg@VO2max
Physical determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Physiological determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Energy requirements (race)≃1.000-1.500Kcal
Positive gainVariable
Race length≃ 50 min (men) / 55 min (women)

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

CHOOSE YOUR DISCIPLINE AND YOUR GOALS: WE’LL TAKE CARE OF ALL THE REST!
TRAIN AND EAT LIKE A PRO WITH 7 WATT PER KILO.

CHOOSE YOUR DISCIPLINE AND YOUR GOALS: WE’LL TAKE CARE OF ALL THE REST!
TRAIN AND EAT LIKE A PRO WITH 7 WATT PER KILO.

INTEGRATED PLANS SWIM-BIKE-RUN

SWIM

• Technique
• Discipline specific workouts

BIKE

• Indoor
• Outdoor
• Discipline specific workouts

RUN

• Specifici per la disciplina scelta
• Rispettosi del traumatismo della corsa a piedi

DRYLAND CONDITIONING

  • Complete Pilates video course for cyclists and triathletes
  • Off the bike workouts (home or at the gym) to improve strength and range of movements (ROM)

WORKOUTS VIDEO

  • Indoor sessions to perform together with professionals (male and female) form the world of cycling and triathlon

NUTRITION

  • Build easily your personalized sport nutritional plans, comprehensive od carbohydrate periodization.

COACH ONLINE

  • Questions? 5/7 you’ll have a professional coach available online

PROGRAMS AND PRICES

TRAINING

Monthly training plans, specific for 12 cycling disciplines (programs follow the north hemisphere seasonality)

ROAD: Granfondo Alpine, Granfondo Hilly, Mediofondo, Criterium, Short Time Trial

OFF ROAD: MTB Marathon, MTB Olympic, Ciclocross

TRIATHLON (plans complete of the swim, bike, run) for IM 140.6 – IM 70.3 – Olimpico, Sprint

All plans are in a double version: OUTDOOR and Indoor training

Indoor video training

Off the bike training (home or at the gym)

Complete video course of pilates for cyclists and triathletes

Fitzess tests (critical power and lactate)

eCOACH (a professional coach available to answer your questions)

7 watt per kilo community (share your experience with the other members)

€ 20.00 per month. For the first 10 days you’ve got a trial without any further obligation. The subscription can be cancelled at any time.

SPORT NUTRITION

Define your goals of body weight, relative power, climbing time (VAM) o running pace

Set your energy expenditure using your Garmin connect account or manually.

Use the W/kg diet to build, according to the international guidelines on sports nutrition, based on your goals, always updated nutritional plans

Monthly updates: different day type, with training performed at other times of the day and in several cycling disciplines.

Sport recipes

News from the world of sports nutrition

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TRAINING + NUTRITION

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12 months of training and nutrizion = € 29.00 x 12 = € 348.00;
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PERSONAL COACH

Monthly file analysis of racing or training

Feedback on performance

Adjustments of the program based on your personal needs

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Minimum length: 3 months