TRIATHLON

TRAINING 3 DISCIPLINES TAKES TIME!

Age and training volume are both factors influencing endurance performance. Age-group athletes, amateurs combining training with other daily commitments, may have difficulty finding free time for optimal physical preparation.

ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE TENDS TO DECLINE WITH AGEING AND THE LONGEST DISTANCES

Athletes, after ∼40 years of age for males and ∼30 years of age for females, may encounter an age-related decline in endurance performance. This decline seems more pronounced in endurance and ultra-endurance races, such as 70.3 and 140.6 Ironman triathlons, due to their high metabolic demands compared to shorter distances (i.e., Olympic and Sprint). The decline appears as well discipline-specific: earlier declines have been recorded in swimming and running compared to cycling.

Athletes, after ∼40 years of age for males and ∼30 years of age for females, may encounter an age-related decline in endurance performance. This decline seems more pronounced in endurance and ultra-endurance races, such as 70.3 and 140.6 Ironman triathlons, due to their high metabolic demands compared to shorter distances (i.e., Olympic and Sprint). The decline appears as well discipline-specific: earlier declines have been recorded in swimming and running compared to cycling.

NUTRITION MAY COUNTERACT SOME DETRIMENTAL EFFECT OF AGEING ON SPORTS PERFORMANCE

Recent evidence suggests that training in a carbohydrate-restricted state, or “training low”, can enhance the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and substrate metabolism, both factors related to the decline of endurance performance with ageing. This nutritional strategy, if carefully designed, may be complementary to age-group athletes’ training routines, possibly maximizing the efficacy of their training sessions while perhaps attenuating some of the detrimental effects of ageing at the peripheral muscle level.

LONG DISTANCE TRIATHLON DI (70.3 L – 140.6 XL)

Ironman races are conducted at moderate to high intensity, ~80% of maximum heart rate (Laursen et al., 2011).

The 70.3 events tend to last in the range from 4 to 7 hours, and the 140.6 events from 8 to 17 hours (Laursen et al., 2011), with an energy expenditure of approximately 4,500 kcal for half Ironman triathlons (Gillum et al., 2006) and 8,500 to 11,500 kcal for full Ironman races (Kimber et al., 2002).

Because the depletion of glycogen in working muscles seems to cause fatigue (Saltin et al., 1971), it is possible to assume that both half and full Ironman races are events for which glycogen depletion may represent a limiting factor.

In such races, the capacity to oxidise the highest rates of fat as an energy substrate may indeed be of paramount importance (O’Toole et al., 1989) and should be targeted by complementary training and nutritional strategies. Indeed, maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) has been shown to correlate with overall Ironman performance (Frandsen et al., 2017).

The aerobic threshold (Lucia et al., 1999), reflects an athlete’s submaximal aerobic capacity and is among the best predictors of long-distance performance.

Ironman races are conducted at moderate to high intensity, ~80% of maximum heart rate (Laursen et al., 2011).

The 70.3 events tend to last in the range from 4 to 7 hours, and the 140.6 events from 8 to 17 hours (Laursen et al., 2011), with an energy expenditure of approximately 4,500 kcal for half Ironman triathlons (Gillum et al., 2006) and 8,500 to 11,500 kcal for full Ironman races (Kimber et al., 2002).

Because the depletion of glycogen in working muscles seems to cause fatigue (Saltin et al., 1971), it is possible to assume that both half and full Ironman races are events for which glycogen depletion may represent a limiting factor.

In such races, the capacity to oxidise the highest rates of fat as an energy substrate may indeed be of paramount importance (O’Toole et al., 1989) and should be targeted by complementary training and nutritional strategies. Indeed, maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) has been shown to correlate with overall Ironman performance (Frandsen et al., 2017).

The aerobic threshold (Lucia et al., 1999), reflects an athlete’s submaximal aerobic capacity and is among the best predictors of long-distance performance.

PERFORMANCE MODEL

1.9(3.8)K

90 (180)K

21 (42)K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


1.9(3.8)K


90 (180)K


21 (42)K

BODY COMPOSITION

In long-distance swimming, body fat mass does not appear to influence performance. Concerning cycling, total weight (athlete and equipment) has a negligible impact if cycling on flat ground at a constant speed, where aerodynamics have greater importance. However, if cycling uphill, relative power output (W/kg) is relevant because it is correlated with the vertical ascent velocity (VAM), expressed in meters of gain per hour (m.h1; Gordon et al., 2004)

The inverse relationship between body fat mass and long-distance running performance has been well-documented in several studies (Cureton et al., 1978; Barandun et al., 2012). This evidence suggests that body fat mass has an impact on Ironman finishing time. Published sources indicate that the optimal percentages may range between 4 and 10% for males and between 13 and 18% for female long-distance triathletes (O’Toole et al., 1989).

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexes T2 (aerobic threshold); W/kg @T2
Physical determinantsBody FAT% 4%-10% (man);
13%-18% (female)
Physiological determinantsT2 (aerobic threshold),
max fat oxidation rate, endurance
Energy requirements (race)4.000-11.500Kcal
Positive gain0 – 2300+m
Race lengthFrom 4 to 7 hours (70.3)
from 8 to 17 hours (140.6)

In long-distance swimming, body fat mass does not appear to influence performance. Concerning cycling, total weight (athlete and equipment) has a negligible impact if cycling on flat ground at a constant speed, where aerodynamics have greater importance. However, if cycling uphill, relative power output (W/kg) is relevant because it is correlated with the vertical ascent velocity (VAM), expressed in meters of gain per hour (m.h1; Gordon et al., 2004)

The inverse relationship between body fat mass and long-distance running performance has been well-documented in several studies (Cureton et al., 1978; Barandun et al., 2012). This evidence suggests that body fat mass has an impact on Ironman finishing time. Published sources indicate that the optimal percentages may range between 4 and 10% for males and between 13 and 18% for female long-distance triathletes (O’Toole et al., 1989).

TRIATHLON OLYMPIC

In this discipline, physical demand correlates to the nature of the race roads, together with race dynamics and tactics.

In swimming, usually, different speeds are recorded between the first 200m and the rest of the swim leg. In Elite men, for example, the first 200m are usually swam at ∼ 1’10”-1’12”/100m, with a suddenly slower pace of ∼ 1’19”-1’20”/100m (Vlecka et al., 2007) In Elite Women, the swim start may be swam at ∼ 1’20”-1’23”/100m to suddenly settle at ∼ 1’25”/1’28”/100m

The cycling leg has different components similar to criterium races (Etxebarria et al., 2013): average intensity close to ∼ 60-65% del Vo2max with peaks > 130% VO2max and long intervals ∼ 80-90% VO2max. (Bernard et al., 2009).

In this discipline, physical demand correlates to the nature of the race roads, together with race dynamics and tactics.

In swimming, usually, different speeds are recorded between the first 200m and the rest of the swim leg. In Elite men, for example, the first 200m are usually swam at ∼ 1’10”-1’12”/100m, with a suddenly slower pace of ∼ 1’19”-1’20”/100m (Vlecka et al., 2007) In Elite Women, the swim start may be swam at ∼ 1’20”-1’23”/100m to suddenly settle at ∼ 1’25”/1’28”/100m

The cycling leg has different components similar to criterium races (Etxebarria et al., 2013): average intensity close to ∼ 60-65% del Vo2max with peaks > 130% VO2max and long intervals ∼ 80-90% VO2max. (Bernard et al., 2009).

PERFORMANCE MODEL

1.5K

≃45K

10K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


1.5K


≃45K


10K

BODY COMPOSITION

In the running leg, performance may vary substantially in relation to the course track (flat or hilly) In Elite races, male running pace may vary from ∼ 3’30” (min:sec/km) to 3’00” (min:sec/km). In women from ∼ 4’00” (min:sec/km) a 3’30” (min:sec/km) (Vlecka et al., 2007).

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexesT2 (aerobic threshold), T4 (anaerobic threshold),
VO2max; W/kg@T4; W/kg@VO2max
Physical determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Physiological determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Energy requirements (race)≃2.000-2.500Kcal
Positive gainVariable
Race length≃ 110 min (men)
/ 123 min (women)

In the running leg, performance may vary substantially in relation to the course track (flat or hilly) In Elite races, male running pace may vary from ∼ 3’30” (min:sec/km) to 3’00” (min:sec/km). In women from ∼ 4’00” (min:sec/km) a 3’30” (min:sec/km) (Vlecka et al., 2007).

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

TRIATHLON SPRINT

triathlon Sprint e Super-Sprint are endurance multi-disciplines events of short duration. In these competitions, individual skills, which influence transition time, have the biggest influence on race results, if compared with longer triathlon (Joel A. Walsh., 2019) These races are characterized from repeated high intensity pulls and accelerations. High power outputs and high average speed are frequent all along the race, together with race tactics. The average duration of these races (for the elite) is of ∼ 50 min (men) and 55 min (women). As well in the elite, the single legs may be performed as follow: swim (1’12”/100m (men and women); Cycling ∼ 46km/h (men) e ∼ 41.5km/h (women); running (2’53”/Km men e 3’14”/Km women)

triathlon Sprint e Super-Sprint are endurance multi-disciplines events of short duration. In these competitions, individual skills, which influence transition time, have the biggest influence on race results, if compared with longer triathlon (Joel A. Walsh., 2019) These races are characterized from repeated high intensity pulls and accelerations. High power outputs and high average speed are frequent all along the race, together with race tactics. The average duration of these races (for the elite) is of ∼ 50 min (men) and 55 min (women). As well in the elite, the single legs may be performed as follow: swim (1’12”/100m (men and women); Cycling ∼ 46km/h (men) e ∼ 41.5km/h (women); running (2’53”/Km men e 3’14”/Km women)

PERFORMANCE MODEL

400 m

≃10K

2.5K

700 K

≃20K

5 K

PERFORMANCE MODEL


400 m


≃10K


2.5K


700 K


≃20K


5 K

BODY COMPOSITION

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

SUMMARY SHEET

Performance indexesT2 (aerobic threshold), T4 (anaerobic threshold),
VO2max; W/kg@T4; W/kg@VO2max
Physical determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Physiological determinantsBody mass (for races with positive
gain in the cycling and running legs)
Energy requirements (race)≃1.000-1.500Kcal
Positive gainVariable
Race length≃ 50 min (men) / 55 min (women)

With regard to the optimal body composition, the same rules apply, as in the long distance triathlon.

CHOOSE YOUR DISCIPLINE AND YOUR GOALS: WE’LL TAKE CARE OF ALL THE REST!
TRAIN AND EAT LIKE A PRO WITH 7 WATT PER KILO.

CHOOSE YOUR DISCIPLINE AND YOUR GOALS: WE’LL TAKE CARE OF ALL THE REST!
TRAIN AND EAT LIKE A PRO WITH 7 WATT PER KILO.

INTEGRATED PLANS SWIM-BIKE-RUN

SWIM

• Technique
• Discipline specific workouts

BIKE

• Indoor
• Outdoor
• Discipline specific workouts

RUN

• Specifici per la disciplina scelta
• Rispettosi del traumatismo della corsa a piedi

PREPARAZIONE A SECCO

  • PILATES (per ciclisti e triatleti (video corso completo)
  • Lavori a secco e in palestra per forza e mobilità articolare

VIDEO LEZIONI

  • Video lezioni da fare in compagnia di professionisti (maschili e femminili) del triathlon e del ciclismo

NUTRIZIONE

  • Costruisci facilmente i tuoi piani personalizzati settimanali, comprensivi della periodizzazione dei carboidrati “training low”.

COACH ONLINE

  • Per qualsiasi dubbio avrai sempre disponibile online, un coach professionista (laureato in scienze motorie) pronto ad aiutarti.

PROGRAMMI E PREZZI

ALLENAMENTO

Tabelle mensili specifiche per 11 discipline ciclistiche (le tabelle seguono la stagionalità della disciplina ciclistica scelta)

Strada: Granfondo Alpine, Granfondo Ondulate, Mediofondo, criterium, gare a cronometro brevi

Off road: MTB Marathon, MTB Olympic, Ciclocross

Triathlon (schede complete nuoto-bici-corsa) per IM 140.6 – IM 70.3 – Olimpico, Sprint

Tutti I programmi in doppia versione per Strada e Indoor (rulli)

Video allenamenti indoor

Allenamenti a secco (casa e palestra)

Corso di pilates per ciclisti e triatleti

Test funzionali (potenza critica e lattato)

eCOACH (un coach professionista disponibile per rispondere alle tue domande

7 watt per kilo community (condividi la tua esperienza con gli altri atleti del gruppo)

€ 20.00 mensili, primi 10 gg prova senza impegno, abbonamento rescindibile in qualsiasi momento

NUTRIZIONE SPORTIVA

Definisci I tuoi obiettivi: di peso, di potenza relativa, di tempi di ascesa (VAM), o di tempi nel running

Definisci il tuo dispendio energetico, manualmente o attraverso Garmin Connect

Usa la W/kg diet per costruire, secondo le linee guida della nutrizione sportiva internazionale, in base ai tuoi obiettivi, piani nutrizionali sempre nuovi

Aggiornamenti mensili: Giornate tipo per allenamento nelle diverse ore della giornata e per le diverse discipline

Ricette per lo sport

News dal mondo della nutrizione sportiva

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ALLENAMENTO + NUTRIZIONE

20.00 + € 12.00 = € 32.00 €29.00 mensili, primi 10 gg prova senza impegno, abbonamento rescindibile in qualsiasi momento

Vuoi pagare annualmente? Ti regaliamo un mese in omaggio
12 mesi allenamento e nutrizione = € 29.00 x 12 = € 348.00;
€ 319.00

COACH PERSONALE

Analisi file personali di allenamento o gara mensili

Feedback sulla prestazione

Adattamento del programma alle proprie esigenze specifiche

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Durata: minimo 3 mesi.