SPORT NUTRITION:
WHAT’S ALL ABOUT

The major role of the daily diet is to supply athletes with fuel and nutrients needed to optimize the adaptations achieved during training and to recover quickly between workouts. Athletes must also eat to stay in good health and to achieve and maintain an optimal physique. (Louise Burke Phd, Practical Sports Nutrition).

14 WAYS SPORT NUTRITION MAY HELP YOUR PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH

1

Meet the energy and fuel requirements needed to support a training program

2

Achieve and maintain an ideal physique for a specific event, achieving a level of body mass, body fat, and muscle mass that is consistent with good health and good performance.

2

Achieve and maintain an ideal physique for a specific event, achieving a level of body mass, body fat, and muscle mass that is consistent with good health and good performance.

3

Enhance adaptation and recovery between training sessions by providing all the nutrients associated with these processes.

3

Enhance adaptation and recovery between training sessions by providing all the nutrients associated with these processes.

4-5

Refuel and rehydrate well during each training session to perform optimally at each session. Practice any intended competition nutrition strategies so that beneficial practices can be identified and fine-tuned.

4-5

Refuel and rehydrate well during each training session to perform optimally at each session. Practice any intended competition nutrition strategies so that beneficial practices can be identified and fine-tuned.

6

Maintain optimal health and function, especially by meeting the increased needs for some nutrients resulting from heavy training

6

Maintain optimal health and function, especially by meeting the increased needs for some nutrients resulting from heavy training

7

Reduce the risk of sickness and injury during heavy training periods by maintaining healthy physique and energy balance and by supplying nutrients believed to assist immune function

7

Reduce the risk of sickness and injury during heavy training periods by maintaining healthy physique and energy balance and by supplying nutrients believed to assist immune function

8

Make well-considered decisions about the use of supplements and specialized sport foods that have been shown to enhance training performance or meet training nutrition needs.

8

Make well-considered decisions about the use of supplements and specialized sport foods that have been shown to enhance training performance or meet training nutrition needs.

9

Fuel up adequately before an event by consuming carbohydrate and tapering exercise during the days before the event according to the importance and duration of the event; use carbohydrate-loading strategies when appropriate before events of greater than 90 to 120 min duration.

9

Fuel up adequately before an event by consuming carbohydrate and tapering exercise during the days before the event according to the importance and duration of the event; use carbohydrate-loading strategies when appropriate before events of greater than 90 to 120 min duration.

10

Top up carbohydrate stores with a pre-event meal or snack during the 1 to 4 hr before competition.

10

Top up carbohydrate stores with a pre-event meal or snack during the 1 to 4 hr before competition.

11

Keep hydration at an acceptable level during the event by drinking appropriate amounts of fluids before, during, and after the event.

11

Keep hydration at an acceptable level during the event by drinking appropriate amounts of fluids before, during, and after the event.

12

consume carbohydrate during events of >1 hr in duration or where body carbohydrate stores become depleted.

12

consume carbohydrate during events of >1 hr in duration or where body carbohydrate stores become depleted.

13

Achieve fluid and food intake before and during the event without causing gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets.

13

Achieve fluid and food intake before and during the event without causing gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets.

14

Promote recovery after an event or training session

14

Promote recovery after an event or training session

CARBOHYDRATES ARE KING,
IN CYCLING AND TRIATHLON!

CARBOHYDRATES FOR COMPETITION AND HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING

Although body fat represents an important fuel source during submaximal exercise (Burke et al., 2004) and its stores are high, ~50.000-150.000Kcal (Coyle et al., 2010), the rate at which it can be oxidised is limited and thus carbohydrate metabolism is critical for the performance of prolonged (> 90 min) aerobic exercise (Burke et al., 2010). Glycogen depletion may induce fatigue subsequent to a number of factors, among which a compromised rate of ATP regeneration as well as contractile impairments caused by a reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release may be mentioned (Ortenbland et al., 2013; Murray et al., 2018; Saltin et al., 1971; Burke et al., 2011; Jeukendrup et al., 2005).

Adaptive responses initiated by training may be further amplified or dampened by the quality and quantity of nutrition in the pre-, during-, and post-exercise periods (Jeukendrup et al., 2017). Carbohydrates (CHO) seem to have a privileged role in these mechanisms (Close et al., 2016). Carbohydrate intake should be expressed in g/Kg-1 of body mass rather than as a percentage of total energy intake (Burke et al., 2004), and it may be useful to distinguish between an optimal CHO intake for competition (or high-intensity training) and one for optimal training adaptations (Close et al., 2016).

Pre-exercise CHO ingestion may enhance CHO availability during prolonged exercise by increasing muscle and liver glycogen stores prior to exercise (Jeukendrup et al., 2017). It is important to choose easily digestible meals that do not cause GI discomfort before or during exercise. Some studies report that intake of CHO in the 30-60 minutes before the beginning of a race may, instead, adversely affect performance, causing a rebound hypoglycaemic effect (Jeukendrup et al., 2017).

This evidence suggests that cyclists and triathletes, before competing, in competitions lasting > 90 minutes, are likely to benefit from a carbohydrate-loading regime (Jeukendrup et al., 2017). Different protocols exist to achieve super-compensated glycogen levels. Cyclists and Triathletes are also advised to consume a carbohydrates containing meal in the 3-4 hours before the beginning of the race (Coyle et al., 1985; Hawley et al., 2004)

A value between 1.0 and 1.5 g/min-1 of multiple transportable CHO (i.e. glucose and fructose) is advised for consumption during longer endurance events (> 90 minutes) because it may increase one’s CHO oxidation rate up to 1.0-1.1 g/min-1 (Jeukendrup et al., 2000), sparing endogenous glycogen stores.

This evidence suggests that cyclists and triathletes, before competing, in competitions lasting > 90 minutes, are likely to benefit from a carbohydrate-loading regime (Jeukendrup et al., 2017). Different protocols exist to achieve super-compensated glycogen levels. Cyclists and Triathletes are also advised to consume a carbohydrates containing meal in the 3-4 hours before the beginning of the race (Coyle et al., 1985; Hawley et al., 2004)

Pre-exercise CHO ingestion may enhance CHO availability during prolonged exercise by increasing muscle and liver glycogen stores prior to exercise (Jeukendrup et al., 2017). It is important to choose easily digestible meals that do not cause GI discomfort before or during exercise. Some studies report that intake of CHO in the 30-60 minutes before the beginning of a race may, instead, adversely affect performance, causing a rebound hypoglycaemic effect (Jeukendrup et al., 2017).

A value between 1.0 and 1.5 g/min-1 of multiple transportable CHO (i.e. glucose and fructose) is advised for consumption during longer endurance events (> 90 minutes) because it may increase one’s CHO oxidation rate up to 1.0-1.1 g/min-1 (Jeukendrup et al., 2000), sparing endogenous glycogen stores.

CARBOHYDRATES FOR TRAINING ADAPTATIONS

Behind the most important endurance training adaptations are the increase in mitochondrial mass and the lipid oxidation rate (Hawley 2002). Interestingly enough, both these factors are among those mentioned to possibly cause an age-related decline in endurance performance (Lepers et al., 2016). It appears that glycogen has allosteric binding domains with several transcriptional factors (Burke et al., 2010; Hawley et al., 2018). When exercising with low muscle glycogen, these factors are released to associate with different targeting proteins, increasing the cascade signalling of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in the activation and translocation of PGC-1a (the master regulator of mitochondria biogenesis) to the mitochondria and cellular nucleus (Burke et al., 2010; Hawley et al., 2018; Hearris et al., 2018).

Exercising in conditions of reduced CHO availability or in a fasted state also increases adipose tissue and intramuscular lipolysis via increased circulating of epinephrine concentrations. The resulting elevation in circulating free fatty acids (FFA) activates transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism (Hearris et al., 2018). These molecular and cellular adaptations may result in increased and prolonged sustainable rates of energy production.

A high-CHO diet may not be strategic when exercise intensity is not important (Mata et al., 2019). Increased evidence suggests that during periods in which CHO availability was reduced, there waas an increase in molecular markers related to endurance training-induced adaptations (Bartlett et al., 2015). CHO levels may be lowered either endogenously, modifying glycogen levels, or exogenously, by modulating CHO ingestion during exercise (Hawley et al., 2018).

Behind the most important endurance training adaptations are the increase in mitochondrial mass and the lipid oxidation rate (Hawley 2002). Interestingly enough, both these factors are among those mentioned to possibly cause an age-related decline in endurance performance (Lepers et al., 2016). It appears that glycogen has allosteric binding domains with several transcriptional factors (Burke et al., 2010; Hawley et al., 2018). When exercising with low muscle glycogen, these factors are released to associate with different targeting proteins, increasing the cascade signalling of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in the activation and translocation of PGC-1a (the master regulator of mitochondria biogenesis) to the mitochondria and cellular nucleus (Burke et al., 2010; Hawley et al., 2018; Hearris et al., 2018).

A high-CHO diet may not be strategic when exercise intensity is not important (Mata et al., 2019). Increased evidence suggests that during periods in which CHO availability was reduced, there waas an increase in molecular markers related to endurance training-induced adaptations (Bartlett et al., 2015). CHO levels may be lowered either endogenously, modifying glycogen levels, or exogenously, by modulating CHO ingestion during exercise (Hawley et al., 2018).

Exercising in conditions of reduced CHO availability or in a fasted state also increases adipose tissue and intramuscular lipolysis via increased circulating of epinephrine concentrations. The resulting elevation in circulating free fatty acids (FFA) activates transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism (Hearris et al., 2018). These molecular and cellular adaptations may result in increased and prolonged sustainable rates of energy production.

TRIATHLON

CARBOHYDRATES INTAKE GUIDELINES

Ironman (140.6 – 70.3) CHO
Before During
Ironman (140.6 – 70.3) 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Up to 90 g.h-1
Olympic 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs 30-60 g.h-1
Sprint 7-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Small amounts, including mouth rinse

ROAD

CARBOHYDRATES INTAKE GUIDELINES

ROAD CHO
Before During
Alpine Granfondo 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Up to 90 g.h-1
Hilly Granfodno 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Up to 90 g.h-1
Medium length Granfodno 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Up to 90 g.h-1
Criterium 7-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Small amounts, including mouth rinse
Short Time Trial 7-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Not needed

OFF-ROAD

CARBOHYDRATES INTAKE GUIDELINES

OFF ROAD CHO
Before During
(MTB Marathon) XCM 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Up to 90 g.h-1
Hilly Granfodno 36-48h of 10-12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs 30-60 g.h-1
Ciclocross (CX) -12g.Kg-1.day-1 body mass per 24h as for daily fuel needs Not needed or Small amounts, including mouth rinse

BUILD YOUR SPORT NUTRITION PLAN
USING OUR SCIENCE BASED SOFTWARE!

  • Easy to use software to create personalized sport nutrition meal plans
  • Follow advices on optimal CHO (carbohydrates intake) and timing
  • Follow advices on optima PRO (protein intake) and timing
  • Follow advices on optima FAT (fat intake)
  • Periodize CHO intake to enhance your training results
  • Get an overall healthy diet, respectful of AMDR guidelines on micro and macro nutrients intake.

ENERGY BALANCE

EEE: EXERCISE ENERGY
EXPENDITURE

NEA: NON EXERCISE
ENERGY EXPENDITURE

CHOOSE YOUR FAVOURITE FOODS

CREATE YOUR PERSONALIZED MEAL

For any doubt you’ll always have a professional coach online, ready to help you!

For any doubt you’ll always have a professional coach online, ready to help you!

PROGRAMS AND PRICES

TRAINING

Monthly training plans, specific for 12 cycling disciplines (programs follow the north hemisphere seasonality)

ROAD: Granfondo Alpine, Granfondo Hilly, Mediofondo, Criterium, Short Time Trial

OFF ROAD: MTB Marathon, MTB Olympic, Ciclocross

TRIATHLON (plans complete of the swim, bike, run) for IM 140.6 – IM 70.3 – Olimpico, Sprint

All plans are in a double version: OUTDOOR and Indoor training

Indoor video training

Off the bike training (home or at the gym)

Complete video course of pilates for cyclists and triathletes

Fitzess tests (critical power and lactate)

eCOACH (a professional coach available to answer your questions)

7 watt per kilo community (share your experience with the other members)

€ 20.00 per month. For the first 10 days you’ve got a trial without any further obligation. The subscription can be cancelled at any time.

SPORT NUTRITION

Define your goals of body weight, relative power, climbing time (VAM) o running pace

Set your energy expenditure using your Garmin connect account or manually.

Use the W/kg diet to build, according to the international guidelines on sports nutrition, based on your goals, always updated nutritional plans

Monthly updates: different day type, with training performed at other times of the day and in several cycling disciplines.

Sport recipes

News from the world of sports nutrition

€ 12.00 per month. For the first 10 days you’ve got a trial without any further obligation. The subscription can be cancelled at any time.

TRAINING + NUTRITION

20.00 + € 12.00 = € 32.00 €29.00 monthly, first 10 days satisfied or reimbursed. 100% guarantee! Possibility to cancel the subscription in whatever moment with no question!

Would you like to pay annually? You have as a gift one month FOR FREE!
12 months of training and nutrizion = € 29.00 x 12 = € 348.00;
€ 319.00

PERSONAL COACH

Monthly file analysis of racing or training

Feedback on performance

Adjustments of the program based on your personal needs

€ 50.00, to be added to an active training or training+nutrizion subscription.

Minimum length: 3 months